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Overview

I am a developmental psychologist who studies social and cognitive development. My primary interest is how children learn about the social world, including how they make judgments about others.


Current Research Interests

Social Cognition

Cross-Cultural Influences

Conceptual Development

Reasoning about Traits and Abilities

Self-Presentation

Source Reasoning

Development of Critical Thinking Skills


Publications

Banerjee, R., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (in press). The development of moral self-presentation. In L.A. Jensen (Ed.), Handbook of moral development: An interdisciplinary perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Setoh, P., Zhao, S., Santos, R., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (in press). Parenting by lying in childhood is associated with negative developmental outcomes in adulthood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Zhao, L., Chen, L., Sun, W., Compton, B.J., Lee, K., & Heyman, G.D. (in press). Young children are more likely to cheat after overhearing that a classmate is smart. Developmental Science.

Zhao, L., Sun, W., Jia, X., He, X., Liu, Y., Lee, K., Fu, G., Compton, B.J., & Heyman, G.D. (in press). Young children selectively ignore quality to promote self-interest. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Carstensen, A., Zhang, J., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Lee, K., & Walker, C.M. (2019). Context shapes the developmental trajectory of relational reasoning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201818365, 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1818365116

Heyman, G.D., & Yazdi, H. (2019). The role of individuation in the development of ingroup preferences. Infant and Child Development, 28, e2121. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.2121

Heyman, G.D., Zhao, L., Compton, B.J., & Lee, K. (2019). Dishonesty in young children. In A. Bucciol and N. Montinari (Eds.), Dishonesty in behavioral economics (pp. 17-29). London: Elsevier Science & Technology Books. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815857-9.00002-9

Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., Mei, J., & Lee, K. (2019). Judging a book by its cover: Children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers predicts their real-world trustworthiness and peer relationships. Child Development, 90, 562-575. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12907

Ma, F., Heyman, G.D., Xiao, L., Xu, F., Compton, B.J., & Lee, K. (2019). Modesty can promote trust: Evidence from China. Social Development, 28, 218-233. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12327

Qian, M. K., Quinn, P. C., Heyman, G.D., Pascalis, O., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). A longterm effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing implicit racial bias in preschool children. Child Development, 90, e290-e305. https://doi.org/110.1111/cdev.12971

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). Differential developmental courses of implicit and explicit biases for different other-race classes. Developmental Psychology, 55, 1440-1452. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000730

Setoh, P., Lee, K.J.J., Zhang, L., Qian, M.K., Quinn, P.C., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2019). Racial categorization predicts implicit racial bias in preschool children. Child Development, 90, 162-179. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12851

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., Sun, W., Zhang, R., & Lee, K. (2019). Cheating in the name of others: Offering prosocial justifications promotes unethical behavior in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 177, 187-196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.08.006

Creel, S.C., Weng, M., Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2018). Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds. Developmental Science, 21, 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12503

Ding, X.P., Heyman, G. D., Sai, L., Yuan, F., Winkielman, P., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2018). Learning to deceive has cognitive benefits. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 176c, 26-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2018.07.008

Ding, X.P., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Zhu, B., & Lee, K. (2018). Young children discover how to deceive in 10 days: A microgenetic study. Developmental Science, 21, e12566. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12566

Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2018). Honesty and lying. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications. https://doi.org//10.4135/9781506307633.n394

Ma, F., Chen, B., Xu, F., Lee, K., & Heyman, G.D. (2018). Generalized trust predicts young children's willingness to delay gratification. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 169, 118-125. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JECP.2017.12.015

Ma, F., Heyman, G.D., Jing, C., Fu, Y., Compton, B.J., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2018). Promoting honesty in young children through observational learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 234-245. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.003

Vanderbilt, K.E., Heyman, G.D. & Liu, D. (2018). Young children show more vigilance against individuals with poor knowledge than those with antisocial motives. Infant and Child Development, 27, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.2078

Zhao, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2018). Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China. International Journal of Psychology. Vol. 53, 228-236. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijop.12285

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., & Lee, K. (2018). Telling young children they have a reputation for being smart promotes cheating. Developmental Science, 21, e12585. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12585

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., & Heyman, G.D. (2017). Rethinking the emergence and development of implicit racial bias: A perceptual-social linkage hypothesis. In N. Budwig, E. Turiel, & P. Zelazo (Eds.), New perspectives on human development (pp. 27-46). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781316282755.004

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2017). When the majority becomes the minority: a longitudinal study of the effects of immersive experience with racial out-group members on implicit and explicit racial biases. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48, 914-930. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117702975

Qian, M.K., Quinn, P.C., Heyman, G.D., Pascalis, O., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2017). Perceptual individuation training (but not mere exposure) reduces implicit racial bias in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 53, 845-859. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000290

Santos, R.M., Zanette, S., Kwok, S.M., Heyman, G.D. & Lee, K. (2017). Exposure to parenting by lying in childhood: Associations with negative outcomes in adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1240. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01240

Zhao, L., Chen, L., He, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2017). Strategic communication related to academic performance: Evidence from China. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35, 469-475. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12190

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., & Lee, K. (2017). Praising young children for being smart promotes cheating. Psychological Science, 28, 1868-1870. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797617721529

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2016). Learning to be unsung heroes: Development of reputation management in two cultures. Child Development, 87, 689-699. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12494

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Qian, M., Guo, T., & Lee, K. (2016). Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat. Developmental Science, 19, 275-283. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12304

Fu, G., Luo, Y.C., Heyman, G.D., Wang, B., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2016). Moral evaluations of lying for one's own group. Infant and Child Development, 25, 355-370. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.1941

Heyman, G.D., Chiu Loke, I., & Lee, K. (2016). Children spontaneously police adults' transgressions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 155-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.05.012

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Barner, D., Zhishan, H., Zhou, L., & Lee, K. (2016). Children's evaluation of public and private generosity and its relation to behavior: Evidence from China. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 16-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.05.001

Jones, A.C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S.C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G.D., Dunlosky, J., & Rickard, T.C. (2016). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better spelling than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 385-400. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10648-015-9330-6

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Messi, F.A., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2016). Implicit racial biases in preschool children and adults from Asia and Africa. Child Development, 87, 285-296. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12442

Wardlow, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2016). The roles of feedback and working memory in children's reference production. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 180-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.05.016

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Chen, G., Liu, P., & Lee, K. (2015). Children trust people who lie to benefit others. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 129, 127-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2014.09.006

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Lin, J., Qian, M.K., & Lee, K. (2015). Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 139, 242-248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.04.013

Hicks, C., Liu, D., & Heyman, G.D. (2015). Young children's beliefs about self-disclosure of performance failure and success. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 123-135. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12077

Ng, R., Fillet, P., DeWitt, M., Heyman, G.D., & Bellugi, U. (2015). Reasoning about trust among individuals with Williams syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 120, 527-541. https://doi.org/10.1352/1944-7558-120.6.527

Tuller, H.M., Bryan, C.J., Heyman, G.D., & Christenfeld, N. (2015). Seeing the other side: Perspective taking and the moderation of extremity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 59, 18-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2015.02.003

Zhang, Z., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Zhang, D., Yang, Y., & Lee, K. (2015). Children's beliefs about self-disclosure to friends regarding academic achievement. Social Development, 24, 128-141. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12090

Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G.D., Itakura, S., Toriyama, R., & Lee, K. (2014). Japanese and American children's moral evaluations of reporting on transgressions. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1520-1531. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035993

Heyman, G.D. (2014). Children's reasoning about deception: A cross-cultural perspective. In Elizabeth J. Robinson & Shiri Einav (Eds.), Trust and skepticism: Children's selective learning from testimony (pp. 83-94). New York: Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315849362

Heyman, G.D., Barner, D., Heumann, J., & Schenck, L. (2014). Children's sensitivity to ulterior motives when evaluating prosocial behavior. Cognitive Science, 38, 683-700. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12089

Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2014). Young children's use of honesty as a basis for selective trust. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 117, 59-72. https://doi.org/0.1016/j.jecp.2013.09.002

Vanderbilt, K.E., Heyman, G.D., & Liu, D. (2014). In the absence of conflicting testimony young children trust inaccurate informants. Developmental Science, 17, 443-451. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12134

Cluver, A., Heyman, G.D., & Carver, L.J. (2013). Young children selectively seek help when solving problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 570-578. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2012.12.011

Dobkins, K.A., & Heyman, G.D. (2013). Using neuroscience and behavioural data to tailor visual environments for infants and children. Intelligent Buildings International, 5, 79-93. https://doi.org/10.1080/17508975.2013.817324

Heyman, G.D. (2013). Social evaluation. In M.R. Banaji & S.A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 749-756). New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199890712.003.0013

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2013). Social cognitive development: Learning from others. In D. E. Carlston (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Cognition (pp. 749-766). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199730018.013.0036

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Selective skepticism: American and Chinese children's reasoning about evaluative academic feedback. Developmental Psychology, 49, 543-553. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031282

Heyman, G.D., Hsu, A.S., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Instrumental lying by parents in the US and China. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 1176-1184. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207594.2012.746463

Heyman, G.D., Sritanyaratana, L., & Vanderbilt, K.E. (2013). Young children's trust in overtly misleading advice. Cognitive Science, 37, 646-667. https://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12020

Liu, D., Vanderbilt, K.E., & Heyman, G.D. (2013). Selective trust: Children's use of intention and outcome of past testimony. Developmental Psychology, 49, 439-445. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031615

Xu, F., Evans, A.D., Li, C., Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2013). The role of honesty and benevolence in children's judgments of trustworthiness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37, 257-265. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025413479861

Heyman, G.D. (2012). Children's critical assessment of the reliability of others. In Norbert Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 530-531). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_4007

Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2012). Moral development: Revisiting Kohlberg's stages. In A.M. Slater & P.C. Quinn (Eds.), Developmental psychology: Revisiting the classic studies (pp. 164-175). London: Sage.

Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G.D., Forgie, J., McCarthy, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Children's moral evaluations of reporting the transgressions of peers: Age differences in evaluations of tattling. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1757-1762. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025357

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2011). Reasoning about modesty among adolescents and adults in China and the U.S. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 599-608. https://doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.adolescence.2010.10.003

Heyman, G.D., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2011). Japanese and American children's reasoning about accepting credit for prosocial behavior. Social Development, 20, 171-184. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00578.x

Ma, F., Xu, F., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2011). Chinese children's evaluations of white lies: Weighing the consequences for recipients. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 308-321. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2Fj.jecp.2010.08.015

Ng, R., Heyman, G.D., & Barner, D. (2011). Collaboration promotes proportional reasoning about resource distribution in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1230-1238. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024923

Vanderbilt, K.E., Liu, D, & Heyman, G.D. (2011). The development of distrust. Child Development, 82, 1372-1380. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-8624.2011.01629.x

Fu, G., Brunet, M.K., Lv, Y., Ding, X., Heyman, G.D., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2010). Chinese children's moral evaluation of lies and truths—Roles of context and parental individualism-collectivism tendencies. Infant and Child Development, 19, 498-515. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.680

Sweet, M.A., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G. & Lee, K. (2010). Are there limits to collectivism? Culture and children's reasoning about lying to conceal a group transgression. Infant and Child Development. 19, 422-442. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.669

Heyman, G.D. (2009). Children's reasoning about traits. In P.J. Bauer (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 37, pp. 105-143). New York: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2407(09)03703-3

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's reasoning about evaluative feedback. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 875-890. https://doi.org/10.1348/026151008X390870

Heyman, G.D., Luu, D.H., & Lee, K. (2009). Parenting by lying. Journal of Moral Education, 38, 353-369. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240903101630

Heyman, G.D., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's reasoning about lie-telling and truth-telling in politeness contexts. Social Development, 18, 728-746. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00495.x

Heyman, G.D. (2008). Children's critical thinking when learning from others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 344-347. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8721.2008.00603.x

Heyman, G.D. (2008). Talking about success: Implications for achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2008.06.003

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2008). Reasoning about the disclosure of success and failure to friends among children in the U.S. and China. Developmental Psychology, 44, 908-918. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.908

Fu, G., Xu, F., Cameron, C.A., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in children's choices, categorizations, and evaluations of truths and lies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 278-293. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.278

Gee, C.L., & Heyman, G.D. (2007). Children's evaluation of other people's self-descriptions. Social Development, 16, 800-810. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00408.x

Gelman, S.A., Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2007). Developmental changes in the coherence of essentialist beliefs about psychological characteristics. Child Development, 78, 757-774. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01031.x

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Evaluating claims people make about themselves: The development of skepticism. Child Development, 78, 367-375. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01003.x

Heyman, G.D., & Compton, B.J. (2006). Context sensitivity in children's reasoning about ability across the elementary school years. Developmental Science, 9, 616-627. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2006.00540.x

Heyman, G.D., & Giles, J.W. (2006). Gender and psychological essentialism. Enfance, 58, 293-310. https://doi.org/10.3917/enf.583.0293

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2005). Preschoolers use trait-relevant information to evaluate the appropriateness of an aggressive response. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 498-509. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20086

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2005). Young children's beliefs about the relationship between gender and aggressive behavior. Child Development, 76, 107-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2005.00833.x

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2005). Children's evaluation of sources of information about traits. Developmental Psychology, 41, 636-647. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.41.4.636

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2004). Conceptions of aggression and withdrawal in early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 13, 407-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/icd.367

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2004). When to cry over spilled milk: Young children's use of category information to guide inferences about ambiguous behavior. Journal of Cognition and Development, 5, 359-382. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327647jcd0503_4

Heyman, G.D., & Giles, J.W. (2004). Valence effects in reasoning about evaluative traits. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 86-109. http://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2004.0004

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2004). Children's beliefs about gender differences in the academic and social domains. Sex Roles, 50, 227-236. http://doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000015554.12336.30

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2003). Preschoolers' beliefs about the stability of antisocial behavior: Implications for navigating social challenges. Social Development, 12, 182-197. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00228

Heyman, G.D., Gee, C.L., & Giles, J.W. (2003). Preschool children's reasoning about ability. Child Development, 74, 516-534. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.7402013

Heyman, G.D., Phillips, A.T., & Gelman, S.A. (2003). Children's reasoning about physics within and across ontological kinds. Cognition, 89, 43-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(03)00072-6

Giles, J.W., Gopnik, A., & Heyman, G.D. (2002). Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children. Psychological Science, 13, 228-291. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00453

Heyman, G.D, & Diesendruck, G. (2002). The Spanish ser/estar distinction in bilingual children's reasoning about human psychological characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 38, 407-417. http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.38.3.407

Heyman, G.D., Martyna, B., & Bhatia, S. (2002). Gender and achievement-related beliefs among engineering students. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 8, 43-54. http://doi.org/10.1615/JWomenMinorScienEng.v8.i1.30

Heyman, G.D. (2001). Children's interpretation of ambiguous behavior: Evidence for a “boys are bad” bias. Social Development, 10, 230-247. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9507.00161

Gelman, S.A., Hollander, M., Star, J., & Heyman, G.D. (2000). The role of language in the construction of kinds. In D.L. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 39, pp. 201-263). San Diego: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0079-7421(00)80035-3

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Beliefs about the origins of human psychological traits. Developmental Psychology, 36, 663-678. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.663

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Preschool children's use of novel predicates to make inductive inferences about people. Cognitive Development, 15, 263-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-2014(00)00028-9

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Preschool children's use of trait labels to make inductive inferences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1006/jecp.1999.2555

Gelman, S.A., & Heyman, G.D. (1999). Carrot-eaters and creature-believers: The effects of lexicalization on children's inferences about social categories. Psychological Science, 10, 489-493. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00194

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (1999). The use of trait labels in making psychological inferences. Child Development, 70, 604-619. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00044

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Children's thinking about traits: Implications for judgments of the self and others. Child Development, 69, 391-403. http://doi.org/10.2307/1132173

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (1998). Young children use motive information to make trait inferences. Developmental Psychology, 34, 310-321. http://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.34.2.310

Cain, K.M., Heyman, G.D., & Walker, M.E. (1997). Preschoolers' ability to make dispositional predictions within and across domains. Social Development, 6, 53-75. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.1997.tb00094.x

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1994). The development of motivation. International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1992). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: Their role and their relation in adaptive motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 231-247. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00991653

Heyman, G.D., Dweck, C.S. & Cain, K.M. (1992). Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationship to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63, 401-415. http://doi.org/10.2307/1131488