I am a developmental psychologist who studies social and cognitive development. My primary interest is how children learn about the social world, including how they make judgments about others.

Current Research Interests

Social Cognition

Cross-Cultural Influences

Conceptual Development

Reasoning about Traits and Abilities


Source Reasoning

Development of Critical Thinking Skills


Banerjee, R., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (in press). The development of moral self-presentation. In L.A. Jensen (Ed.), Handbook of moral development: An interdisciplinary perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Setoh, P., Zhao, S., Santos, R., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (in press). Parenting by lying in childhood is associated with negative developmental outcomes in adulthood. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Zhao, L., Chen, L., Sun, W., Compton, B.J., Lee, K., & Heyman, G.D. (in press). Young children are more likely to cheat after overhearing that a classmate is smart. Developmental Science.

Zhao, L., Sun, W., Jia, X., He, X., Liu, Y., Lee, K., Fu, G., Compton, B.J., & Heyman, G.D. (in press). Young children selectively ignore quality to promote self-interest. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.

Carstensen, A., Zhang, J., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Lee, K., & Walker, C.M. (2019). Context shapes the developmental trajectory of relational reasoning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201818365, 1-6.

Heyman, G.D., & Yazdi, H. (2019). The role of individuation in the development of ingroup preferences. Infant and Child Development, 28, e2121.

Heyman, G.D., Zhao, L., Compton, B.J., & Lee, K. (2019). Dishonesty in young children. In A. Bucciol and N. Montinari (Eds.), Dishonesty in behavioral economics (pp. 17-29). London: Elsevier Science & Technology Books.

Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., Mei, J., & Lee, K. (2019). Judging a book by its cover: Children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers predicts their real-world trustworthiness and peer relationships. Child Development, 90, 562-575.

Ma, F., Heyman, G.D., Xiao, L., Xu, F., Compton, B.J., & Lee, K. (2019). Modesty can promote trust: Evidence from China. Social Development, 28, 218-233.

Qian, M. K., Quinn, P. C., Heyman, G.D., Pascalis, O., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). A longterm effect of perceptual individuation training on reducing implicit racial bias in preschool children. Child Development, 90, e290-e305.

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2019). Differential developmental courses of implicit and explicit biases for different other-race classes. Developmental Psychology, 55, 1440-1452.

Setoh, P., Lee, K.J.J., Zhang, L., Qian, M.K., Quinn, P.C., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2019). Racial categorization predicts implicit racial bias in preschool children. Child Development, 90, 162-179.

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., Sun, W., Zhang, R., & Lee, K. (2019). Cheating in the name of others: Offering prosocial justifications promotes unethical behavior in young children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 177, 187-196.

Creel, S.C., Weng, M., Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2018). Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds. Developmental Science, 21, 1-7.

Ding, X.P., Heyman, G. D., Sai, L., Yuan, F., Winkielman, P., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2018). Learning to deceive has cognitive benefits. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 176c, 26-38.

Ding, X.P., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Zhu, B., & Lee, K. (2018). Young children discover how to deceive in 10 days: A microgenetic study. Developmental Science, 21, e12566.

Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2018). Honesty and lying. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of lifespan human development. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Ma, F., Chen, B., Xu, F., Lee, K., & Heyman, G.D. (2018). Generalized trust predicts young children's willingness to delay gratification. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 169, 118-125.

Ma, F., Heyman, G.D., Jing, C., Fu, Y., Compton, B.J., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2018). Promoting honesty in young children through observational learning. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 234-245.

Vanderbilt, K.E., Heyman, G.D. & Liu, D. (2018). Young children show more vigilance against individuals with poor knowledge than those with antisocial motives. Infant and Child Development, 27, 1-12.

Zhao, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2018). Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China. International Journal of Psychology. Vol. 53, 228-236.

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., & Lee, K. (2018). Telling young children they have a reputation for being smart promotes cheating. Developmental Science, 21, e12585.

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., & Heyman, G.D. (2017). Rethinking the emergence and development of implicit racial bias: A perceptual-social linkage hypothesis. In N. Budwig, E. Turiel, & P. Zelazo (Eds.), New perspectives on human development (pp. 27-46). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2017). When the majority becomes the minority: a longitudinal study of the effects of immersive experience with racial out-group members on implicit and explicit racial biases. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48, 914-930.

Qian, M.K., Quinn, P.C., Heyman, G.D., Pascalis, O., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2017). Perceptual individuation training (but not mere exposure) reduces implicit racial bias in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 53, 845-859.

Santos, R.M., Zanette, S., Kwok, S.M., Heyman, G.D. & Lee, K. (2017). Exposure to parenting by lying in childhood: Associations with negative outcomes in adulthood. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1240.

Zhao, L., Chen, L., He, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2017). Strategic communication related to academic performance: Evidence from China. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 35, 469-475.

Zhao, L., Heyman, G.D., Chen, L., & Lee, K. (2017). Praising young children for being smart promotes cheating. Psychological Science, 28, 1868-1870.

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2016). Learning to be unsung heroes: Development of reputation management in two cultures. Child Development, 87, 689-699.

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Qian, M., Guo, T., & Lee, K. (2016). Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat. Developmental Science, 19, 275-283.

Fu, G., Luo, Y.C., Heyman, G.D., Wang, B., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2016). Moral evaluations of lying for one's own group. Infant and Child Development, 25, 355-370.

Heyman, G.D., Chiu Loke, I., & Lee, K. (2016). Children spontaneously police adults' transgressions. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 155-164.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Barner, D., Zhishan, H., Zhou, L., & Lee, K. (2016). Children's evaluation of public and private generosity and its relation to behavior: Evidence from China. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 16-30.

Jones, A.C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S.C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G.D., Dunlosky, J., & Rickard, T.C. (2016). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better spelling than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review, 28, 385-400.

Qian, M.K., Heyman, G.D., Quinn, P.C., Messi, F.A., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2016). Implicit racial biases in preschool children and adults from Asia and Africa. Child Development, 87, 285-296.

Wardlow, L., & Heyman, G.D. (2016). The roles of feedback and working memory in children's reference production. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 180-193.

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Chen, G., Liu, P., & Lee, K. (2015). Children trust people who lie to benefit others. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 129, 127-139.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Lin, J., Qian, M.K., & Lee, K. (2015). Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 139, 242-248.

Hicks, C., Liu, D., & Heyman, G.D. (2015). Young children's beliefs about self-disclosure of performance failure and success. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 33, 123-135.

Ng, R., Fillet, P., DeWitt, M., Heyman, G.D., & Bellugi, U. (2015). Reasoning about trust among individuals with Williams syndrome. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 120, 527-541.

Tuller, H.M., Bryan, C.J., Heyman, G.D., & Christenfeld, N. (2015). Seeing the other side: Perspective taking and the moderation of extremity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 59, 18-23.

Zhang, Z., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Zhang, D., Yang, Y., & Lee, K. (2015). Children's beliefs about self-disclosure to friends regarding academic achievement. Social Development, 24, 128-141.

Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G.D., Itakura, S., Toriyama, R., & Lee, K. (2014). Japanese and American children's moral evaluations of reporting on transgressions. Developmental Psychology, 50, 1520-1531.

Heyman, G.D. (2014). Children's reasoning about deception: A cross-cultural perspective. In Elizabeth J. Robinson & Shiri Einav (Eds.), Trust and skepticism: Children's selective learning from testimony (pp. 83-94). New York: Psychology Press.

Heyman, G.D., Barner, D., Heumann, J., & Schenck, L. (2014). Children's sensitivity to ulterior motives when evaluating prosocial behavior. Cognitive Science, 38, 683-700.

Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2014). Young children's use of honesty as a basis for selective trust. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 117, 59-72.

Vanderbilt, K.E., Heyman, G.D., & Liu, D. (2014). In the absence of conflicting testimony young children trust inaccurate informants. Developmental Science, 17, 443-451.

Cluver, A., Heyman, G.D., & Carver, L.J. (2013). Young children selectively seek help when solving problems. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 570-578.

Dobkins, K.A., & Heyman, G.D. (2013). Using neuroscience and behavioural data to tailor visual environments for infants and children. Intelligent Buildings International, 5, 79-93.

Heyman, G.D. (2013). Social evaluation. In M.R. Banaji & S.A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 749-756). New York: Oxford University Press.

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2013). Social cognitive development: Learning from others. In D. E. Carlston (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Social Cognition (pp. 749-766). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Selective skepticism: American and Chinese children's reasoning about evaluative academic feedback. Developmental Psychology, 49, 543-553.

Heyman, G.D., Hsu, A.S., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Instrumental lying by parents in the US and China. International Journal of Psychology, 48, 1176-1184.

Heyman, G.D., Sritanyaratana, L., & Vanderbilt, K.E. (2013). Young children's trust in overtly misleading advice. Cognitive Science, 37, 646-667.

Liu, D., Vanderbilt, K.E., & Heyman, G.D. (2013). Selective trust: Children's use of intention and outcome of past testimony. Developmental Psychology, 49, 439-445.

Xu, F., Evans, A.D., Li, C., Li, Q., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2013). The role of honesty and benevolence in children's judgments of trustworthiness. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37, 257-265.

Heyman, G.D. (2012). Children's critical assessment of the reliability of others. In Norbert Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning (pp. 530-531). New York: Springer.

Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2012). Moral development: Revisiting Kohlberg's stages. In A.M. Slater & P.C. Quinn (Eds.), Developmental psychology: Revisiting the classic studies (pp. 164-175). London: Sage.

Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G.D., Forgie, J., McCarthy, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Children's moral evaluations of reporting the transgressions of peers: Age differences in evaluations of tattling. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1757-1762.

Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2011). Reasoning about modesty among adolescents and adults in China and the U.S. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 599-608.

Heyman, G.D., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2011). Japanese and American children's reasoning about accepting credit for prosocial behavior. Social Development, 20, 171-184.

Ma, F., Xu, F., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2011). Chinese children's evaluations of white lies: Weighing the consequences for recipients. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 308-321.

Ng, R., Heyman, G.D., & Barner, D. (2011). Collaboration promotes proportional reasoning about resource distribution in young children. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1230-1238.

Vanderbilt, K.E., Liu, D, & Heyman, G.D. (2011). The development of distrust. Child Development, 82, 1372-1380.

Fu, G., Brunet, M.K., Lv, Y., Ding, X., Heyman, G.D., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2010). Chinese children's moral evaluation of lies and truths—Roles of context and parental individualism-collectivism tendencies. Infant and Child Development, 19, 498-515.

Sweet, M.A., Heyman, G.D., Fu, G. & Lee, K. (2010). Are there limits to collectivism? Culture and children's reasoning about lying to conceal a group transgression. Infant and Child Development. 19, 422-442.

Heyman, G.D. (2009). Children's reasoning about traits. In P.J. Bauer (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 37, pp. 105-143). New York: Academic Press.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's reasoning about evaluative feedback. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 875-890.

Heyman, G.D., Luu, D.H., & Lee, K. (2009). Parenting by lying. Journal of Moral Education, 38, 353-369.

Heyman, G.D., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's reasoning about lie-telling and truth-telling in politeness contexts. Social Development, 18, 728-746.

Heyman, G.D. (2008). Children's critical thinking when learning from others. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 344-347.

Heyman, G.D. (2008). Talking about success: Implications for achievement motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 361-370.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2008). Reasoning about the disclosure of success and failure to friends among children in the U.S. and China. Developmental Psychology, 44, 908-918.

Fu, G., Xu, F., Cameron, C.A., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in children's choices, categorizations, and evaluations of truths and lies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 278-293.

Gee, C.L., & Heyman, G.D. (2007). Children's evaluation of other people's self-descriptions. Social Development, 16, 800-810.

Gelman, S.A., Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2007). Developmental changes in the coherence of essentialist beliefs about psychological characteristics. Child Development, 78, 757-774.

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Evaluating claims people make about themselves: The development of skepticism. Child Development, 78, 367-375.

Heyman, G.D., & Compton, B.J. (2006). Context sensitivity in children's reasoning about ability across the elementary school years. Developmental Science, 9, 616-627.

Heyman, G.D., & Giles, J.W. (2006). Gender and psychological essentialism. Enfance, 58, 293-310.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2005). Preschoolers use trait-relevant information to evaluate the appropriateness of an aggressive response. Aggressive Behavior, 31, 498-509.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2005). Young children's beliefs about the relationship between gender and aggressive behavior. Child Development, 76, 107-121.

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2005). Children's evaluation of sources of information about traits. Developmental Psychology, 41, 636-647.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2004). Conceptions of aggression and withdrawal in early childhood. Infant and Child Development, 13, 407-421.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2004). When to cry over spilled milk: Young children's use of category information to guide inferences about ambiguous behavior. Journal of Cognition and Development, 5, 359-382.

Heyman, G.D., & Giles, J.W. (2004). Valence effects in reasoning about evaluative traits. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, 86-109.

Heyman, G.D., & Legare, C.H. (2004). Children's beliefs about gender differences in the academic and social domains. Sex Roles, 50, 227-236.

Giles, J.W., & Heyman, G.D. (2003). Preschoolers' beliefs about the stability of antisocial behavior: Implications for navigating social challenges. Social Development, 12, 182-197.

Heyman, G.D., Gee, C.L., & Giles, J.W. (2003). Preschool children's reasoning about ability. Child Development, 74, 516-534.

Heyman, G.D., Phillips, A.T., & Gelman, S.A. (2003). Children's reasoning about physics within and across ontological kinds. Cognition, 89, 43-61.

Giles, J.W., Gopnik, A., & Heyman, G.D. (2002). Source monitoring reduces the suggestibility of preschool children. Psychological Science, 13, 228-291.

Heyman, G.D, & Diesendruck, G. (2002). The Spanish ser/estar distinction in bilingual children's reasoning about human psychological characteristics. Developmental Psychology, 38, 407-417.

Heyman, G.D., Martyna, B., & Bhatia, S. (2002). Gender and achievement-related beliefs among engineering students. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 8, 43-54.

Heyman, G.D. (2001). Children's interpretation of ambiguous behavior: Evidence for a “boys are bad” bias. Social Development, 10, 230-247.

Gelman, S.A., Hollander, M., Star, J., & Heyman, G.D. (2000). The role of language in the construction of kinds. In D.L. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 39, pp. 201-263). San Diego: Academic Press.

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Beliefs about the origins of human psychological traits. Developmental Psychology, 36, 663-678.

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Preschool children's use of novel predicates to make inductive inferences about people. Cognitive Development, 15, 263-280.

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (2000). Preschool children's use of trait labels to make inductive inferences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 77, 1-19.

Gelman, S.A., & Heyman, G.D. (1999). Carrot-eaters and creature-believers: The effects of lexicalization on children's inferences about social categories. Psychological Science, 10, 489-493.

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (1999). The use of trait labels in making psychological inferences. Child Development, 70, 604-619.

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Children's thinking about traits: Implications for judgments of the self and others. Child Development, 69, 391-403.

Heyman, G.D., & Gelman, S.A. (1998). Young children use motive information to make trait inferences. Developmental Psychology, 34, 310-321.

Cain, K.M., Heyman, G.D., & Walker, M.E. (1997). Preschoolers' ability to make dispositional predictions within and across domains. Social Development, 6, 53-75.

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1994). The development of motivation. International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Heyman, G.D., & Dweck, C.S. (1992). Achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: Their role and their relation in adaptive motivation. Motivation and Emotion, 16, 231-247.

Heyman, G.D., Dweck, C.S. & Cain, K.M. (1992). Young children's vulnerability to self-blame and helplessness: Relationship to beliefs about goodness. Child Development, 63, 401-415.